Modern cement-based building materials quickly acquire surface damage and deep cracks, and fractures along stress lines appear in reinforced concrete structures.
It is known that particularly rapid and severe destruction of concrete and stone is observed when the combined effects of low temperatures (frost), deep water saturation and electrolytes (acids, alkalis, salts, etc.). In this regard, the problem of increasing the frost and corrosion resistance of concrete and reinforced concrete is particularly acute.
In these processes for building a global protective impregnating concrete special primer deep penetration be applied to obecpecheniya ctsepleniya mezhdu kippichnoy, betonnoy, penobetonnoy, oshtukatupennoy, pposhpaklevannoy, gipcokaptonnoy or acbotsementnoy povepxnoctyu ocnovaniya and nanocimymi cloyami shtukatupki, shpaklevki, kleya or kpacki.
The following describes how to protect concrete and reinforced concrete structures from the factors of destruction, and also provides a brief description of such strategically important products as building paints.
Protection and quality improvement of products from concrete, cement and building stone
There are two traditional ways to protect against degradation and improve the quality of products from concrete, cement and building stone.
The first method: the use of impregnating compositions.
Modern manufacturers of paints and varnishes currently produce these compositions in a wide range.
Most often, these are acrylic primers of deep penetration with a greater or lesser degree of acrylic content, which significantly affects their price and durability of protection.
And also, silicone compounds that hydrophobic concrete. When hydrophobization occurs, the wetting angle decreases and the capillary effect is blocked.
The disadvantages of this method are:
- the limit of water resistance is created only by reducing the wetting angle, while the pores of the protected material remain open;
- over time, the organosilicon compounds under the influence of the alkaline environment of concrete are transferred from a water-insoluble form to a soluble silicate form and, as a result, lose their ability to have a protective effect due to the hydrophobic effect.
The second method: the formation of a protective waterproof impermeable layer with the formation of a moisture-proof protective film.
One of the most successful solutions for protecting concrete is, for example, XB-785 enamels (matte) or EP-140 (glossy) or similar imported vinyl chloride or epoxy or acrylic one or 2-component compositions.
The disadvantage of this method is the low vapor permeability of the applied organic compositions based on epoxy, polyester, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane and other resins, which rather quickly leads to layer-by-layer destruction of the coating itself.
Is it possible to get rid of the above disadvantages? It is possible, if simultaneously with the impregnation, to form a protective film, ideally on the basis of one composition. Moreover, the impregnating composition should have a high resistance to the effects of alkaline agents of the “cement stone” and counteract the development of silicatization processes, and the film formed on its basis should have a high vapor permeability.
Currently, silicone enamels and varnishes are increasingly used in construction.
The use of these high-tech materials together with acrylates makes it possible to achieve a cumulative effect on reducing water absorption by 15 times and increasing frost resistance by 35–80 times.
And, of course, the most economical way to protect concrete, bitumen and its various options are traditionally: resin, mastic, bitumen-rubber solution, varnish, etc.
But it is black, and is usually suitable in invisible or buried structures.